|Chon Ji Tul|
Chon Ji means literally “Heaven and Earth”. In the Orient it is interpreted as the creation of the world, or the beginning of human history. Therefore, it is the initial pattern performed by the beginner. The pattern consists of two similar parts – one to represent Heaven and the other the Earth.
|Dan Gun Tul|
Dan Gun is named after the Holy Dan Gun, the legendary founder of Korea who established the country in 2333BC.
|Do San Tul|
Do San is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Ch’ang Ho (1876-1938) who devoted his life to furthering the education of Korea and its independence movement.
|Won Hyo Tul|
Won Hyo is the name of the Silla Dynasty monk who reputedly introduced Zen Buddhism to Korea in AD 686.
|Yul Gok Tul|
Yul Gok is the pseudonym of the great 16th Century philosopher and scholar Yi I (pronounced Yee Eye) 1536 – 1584, nicknamed the Confucius of Korea. The 38 movements represent his birthplace on the 38th degree line of latitude.
The 38th Degree line of latitude was also chosen as the division between North and South Korea. This line was decided between US and Russian troops and was only ever intended as a temporary split. The division still exists today and although no real fighting has taken place for decades, the countries are still officially at war.
|Joong Gun Tul|
Joong Gun is named after the patriot An Joong Gun who assassinated the first Japanese Governor General of Korea, Hiro Bumi Ito. The 32 Movements represent Mr An’s age when he was executed in Lui Shung prison in 1910.
Hiro Bumi Ito
Japanese statesman. Born to a samurai’s adopted son, Ito received samurai status in 1863 and was sent to England to study. He rose quickly through the Japanese government departments including Junior Councillor in charge of foreign affairs, Home Minister and after extensive study in Europe, became Prime Minister of the first cabinet government in 1855. In 1903, he began annexation of Korean becoming first resident Governor General there in 1906 and in 1907 forcing Korean sovereign abdication.
He resigned in 1909, but was assassinated at Harnin train station in Manchuria by Korean nationalist An Joong Gun.
|Toi Gye Tul|
Toi Gye is the pen name of the 16th Century scholar Yi Wang who was regarded as an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements represent his birthplace on a 37-degree latitude. The pattern diagram of Toi Gye represents calligraphy for scholar.
Neo-Confucianism refers not to a new interpretation of the ancient Confucianism but a renewed interest in traditional techniques. The movement centred on intellectual and spiritual growth, ultimately leading to ultimate personal fulfilment. Neo-Confucianism spread quickly throughout East Asia and still today is a cornerstone of philosophical teachings in western society.
|Hwa Rang Tul|
Hwa Rang is the name given to an army of young warriors, from the Silla Dynasty of Korea. They were first mentioned in AD 600, and over the years they gradually became a significant force in the unification of Korea’s three kingdoms.
Hwa Rang means “Flowering Youth” and comprises of 29 movements which refer to the 29th Infantry Division where Tae Kwon-Do developed.
The Hwa Rang were a group of young men who were both highly educated and expertly trained. They studied from a very young age, mastering many forms of military combat, but also focusing on the arts and literature.
The Hwa Rang were noted for their horsemanship as well as the array of weapons they used, including unarmed combat. They specialized in battle tactics and many of these have been used by modern armies, allowing small numbers to attack and overcome a larger force.
The Hwa Rang often led the Silla army into battle, and rarely lost.
|Choong Moo Tul|
Choong Moo was the name given to the Yi Dynasty Admiral Yi Sun-Sin. In AD1592, he was reputed to have invented the worlds first armoured battleship (Kobukson), which is said to be the precursor of today’s submarine. The reason the pattern ends with a left-hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained potentially checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the king.
The Kobukson, also known as the Turtle Ship, was the first ironclad warship in the world, first used around 1592.
The ship was unparalleled in terms of firepower and mobility, boasting numerous cannons and even flame throwers. It proved instrumental in achieving victory in the sea battles under Admiral Yi. Described as a sea tank, it was capable of sinking large numbers of enemy vessels, and so did much to maintain the morale of Korean sailors, so often outnumbered by the vast fleets of the Japanese navy.
A replica of a Kobukson can be found in the British Maritime Museum.